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Salmonella / 12 Jul 2019

SALMONELLA

ABSTRACT -

Salmonella is the type of infection caused by bacteria that affects intestinal tracts. Salmonella bacteria lives in animals and intestine of humans which gets shed through faeces. The infection is caused majorly due to consumption of contaminated food and water.

CAUSES -

  • Raw meat, poultry and seafood
  • Uncooked eggs
  • Lack of cleanliness and hygiene
  • Touching infected pets, reptiles and birds and not cleaning later
  • Imported fruits and vegetables processed with contaminated water
  • Foods contaminated with faeces containing salmonella strains

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Blood in stools
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Cramps in muscles

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Bacteremia – Bacteria in blood stream
  • Dehydration
  • Reactive Arthritis

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Stool Sample Testing

TREATMENT –

  • Medications such as anti-diarrheal, antibiotics

RISK FACTORS –

  • Increased exposure to poor hygiene and sanitation
  • Stomach and bowel disorders
  • Diseases such as AIDS, Sickle Cell Anaemia, Malaria

PREVENTIONS –

  • Avoid consuming raw eggs
  • Keep the food items like raw meat, seafood and poultry away from other foods to prevent cross contamination.
  • Maintain hygiene by washing hands properly as and when required.
  • Wash fruits and vegetables before eating or cutting

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Infants and young children are estimated to get affected the most from Salmonella.
  • Older generations are also prone to suffer from this condition.
  • Approximately, 155,000 deaths occur due to Salmonella infection globally.

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