CERVICAL CANCER

04 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. Cervix is a lower most region of uterus which connects to the vagina. Cancer affects cells of the cervix. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), most common sexually transmitted infection causing majority of cervical cancers. Immune system of female tries to prevent the virus when it comes in contact however in some cases, virus survives for years and it leads to make some cells of cervix cancerous. Risk of developing cervical cancer can be reduced by the HPV vaccine.

CAUSES –

  • HPV – 13 out of 100 different types of HPV strains causes cervical cancer
  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Abnormal cell growth which turns into tumor
  • Smoking
  • Weak immune system
  • Long term use of birth control pills
  • Other sexually transmitted diseases
  • Low socio-economic status

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Vaginal bleeding during periods, after sexual intercourse or menopause
  • Heavy vaginal discharge with strong odor
  • Watery, bloody discharge
  • Pelvic pain

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Screening – It is not recommended until the age is 21 and above and it includes:
      1. Pap test – Scraping of cells from cervix to examine in the lab
      2. HPV DNA test
  • Punch biopsy
  • Endocervical curettage
  • Electrical wire loop
  • Cone biopsy
  • X-ray, CT scan, MRI
  • Visual examination of inside of bladder and rectum by using special scopes.

TREATMENT –

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy

PREVENTIONS –

  • HPV vaccine
  • Quit smoking
  • Safe sex
  • Routine Pap test
  • Delaying first sexual intercourse –
    Younger women has high risk of HPV infection during their first sexual intercourse. Risk reduces as long as it delays.

RISK FACTORS –

  • Multiple sexual partners
  • Sexual intercourse at an early age
  • Low immunity
  • Other sexual transmitted diseases (STDs)
  • Smoking

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • This is the fourth most common malignancy among women globally.
  • Estimation shows that more than 5, 00,000 females from worldwide suffers from this cancer annually

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