EPILEPSY

15 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder where the brain does not function properly causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations and loss of awareness.


Types –
  1. Generalized Seizures
    • Tonic-Clonic Seizures (Grand Mal)
    • Clonic Seizures
    • Tonic Seizures
    • Atonic Seizures
    • Myoclonic Seizures
    • Absence Seizures (Petit Mal)
  2. Focal or Partial Seizures
    • Simple Focal Seizures
    • Complex Focal Seizures
    • Secondary Generalized Seizures

CAUSES –

  • Head trauma
  • Brain conditions like tumors or strokes
  • Genetics
  • Brain development disorders like Autism, neurofibromatosis etc.
  • Infectious diseases like Meningitis, AIDS etc.
  • Prenatal injury like poor nutrition, oxygen deficiency etc.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

Signs and symptoms varies with the types of edema –
  • Uncontrollable jerks in the arms and legs
  • Staring spell (day dreaming)
  • Temporary confusion
  • Psychic signs like anxiety, fear etc.
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Headache and difficulty in speaking
  • Psychosis
  • Todd’s paralysis, i.e., weakness after a seizure
  • Falling, drowning or car accidents
  • Pregnancy complications increase risk of birth defects
  • Permanent brain damage
  • Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Neuroimaging like CT scan and MRI
  • Video EEG monitoring

TREATMENT –

  • First Aid
  • Surgery
  • Proper healthy diet
  • Avoidance therapy like avoiding triggers that lead to epilepsy
  • Medications like anticonvulsants
  • Alternative therapy like yoga, acupuncture etc.

RISK FACTORS –

  • Genetics
  • Age
  • Medical conditions like stroke, vascular disease etc.
  • Accidents
  • Brain infections
  • Seizures in childhood

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

The prevalence rate of epilepsy is from 3-12 per 1000 people as per the estimation.

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