SCHIZOPHRENIA

12 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder which may result in hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. In this condition, people interpret reality in abnormal manner and affect their own thinking, behavior and daily functioning. Schizophrenia patients require lifelong treatment although early treatments may help in controlling severe complications before it turns serious. It usually occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood.

CAUSES –

  • Genetic factors
  • Imbalance in brain chemicals
  • Family tension or problems in family relationships
  • Trauma before birth
  • Viral infections
  • Stress
  • Drugs such as Marijuana and LSD

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Delusions and hallucination
  • Disorganized thinking
  • Cognitive difficulties
  • Social withdrawal
  • Depressed mood and anxiety
  • Lack of motivation

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Suicide attempts or self-injury
  • Alcohol or drug abuse
  • Social isolation
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Depression and anxiety disorders

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Tests and screening from imaging studies like CT Scan and MRI
  • Psychological evaluation
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)

TREATMENT –

  • Antipsychotic Medications
  • Social Skill Training
  • Vocational Rehabilitation
  • Stress Management
  • Counseling
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy

RISK FACTORS –

  • Family history
  • Autoimmune conditions
  • Pregnancy or birth complications
  • Psychoactive drugs

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Estimation shows that 1% of global population suffers from Schizophrenia every year.
  • Male to female ratio of Schizophrenia is 1.4:1. Males with age less than 25 years and females with age less than 35 years are majorly affected.

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