SCOLIOSIS

12 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Scoliosis is a sideways curve in the spinal cord. It can affect any region of spine but the chest level and the lower back are majorly prone to get affected in this condition and curvature of spine becomes C or S shaped. Severe spinal curve reduces the amount of space within the chest which results in difficulty in lung functioning.

Types –

  • Structural Scoliosis (Permanent)
  • Non-Structural Scoliosis (Temporary)

CAUSES –

  • Neuromuscular conditions such as cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis or muscular dystrophy
  • Congenital scoliosis: birth defect which affects development of the spinal bones
  • Hereditary factors
  • Spinal injury or infection
  • Unequal leg length
  • Syndromic Scoliosis: It can occur as a result of another existing disease such as Neurofibromatosis and Marfan’s Syndrome.
  • Osteoporosis
  • Improper body posture because of carrying backpacks
  • Connective tissue disorders

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Uneven shoulders
  • Ribcage is not symmetrical
  • One hip or one shoulder is more prominent than other
  • Uneven hips or leg length
  • Individual looks leaned to one side

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Damage in lung or heart
  • Back related problems

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Medical history
  • Inclinometer or scoliometer
  • X-ray, MRI, CT Scan

TREATMENT –

Mild scoliosis does not require treatment. But some cases might require:

  • Braces
  • Surgery

RISK FACTORS –

  • Family history

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Around 3% of adolescents suffers from this disease globally every year but it is majorly seen in children with age less than 12 (Before puberty).
  • Females have high risk of developing this condition than males.

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