Urinary Tract Infection

31 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. When there is infection in any of these parts, it is known as UTI (Urinary Tract Infection). Infection usually occurs in the lower urinary tract i.e. the bladder and urethra which causes severe pain and irritation. The situation becomes worse when the infection spreads to the kidneys.

CAUSES –

  • Bacterial infection
  • Infection in bladder known as cystitis
  • Infection in urethra known as urethritis

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Continuous urge to urinate
  • Burning sensation during urination
  • Pelvic pain
  • Strong and stinking urine
  • Blood in urine
  • Frequent and cloudy urination

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Recurring infections
  • Permanent kidney damage
  • Urethral contraction
  • Sepsis development
  • Risk in pregnant women

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Urine test
  • Imaging test like MRI,CT Scan of the urinary tract
  • Cystoscopy

TREATMENT –

  • Antibiotics
  • Vaginal Estrogen Therapy after menopause

RISK FACTORS –

  • Lowered immunity
  • Urinary tract abnormalities
  • Multiple partners and birth control methods
  • Menopause
  • Blockage in urinary tract
  • Catheter to pass urine

PREVENTION –

  • Stay hydrated and consume plenty of fluids
  • Maintain hygiene and cleanliness in the genital areas
  • Avoid any kind of feminine products in the genital area
  • Empty the bladder immediately after sexual intercourse
  • Consume cranberry juice

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Estimation shows that the prevalence rate for UTI is 0.7% worldwide and the main reasons are age, history of UTI, sexual activity and diabetes.
  • Females are at greater risk of developing a UTI than males.

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