ALLOPURINOL

13 Jun 2019

Generic Name : ALLOPURINOL

ABSTRACT –

Allopurinol is a drug used in the treatment of gout disease that is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition in body tissues. It is also known to be used in the treatment of specific kidney stones and reduction of uric acid crystals which might form due to chemotherapy. It inhibits the xanthine oxidase enzyme which decreases urate production.

DOSAGE –

  • Allopurinol has to be taken as directed by the doctors:
  • Prescribed dosages:
  • Tablet: 100mg, 200mg, 300mg Injection: 500mg/vial, intravenous

SIDE EFFECTS –

  • Upset stomach
  • Nausea
  • Maculopapular rash
  • Dermatitis
  • Fever
  • Cellulitis
  • Skin Edema
  • Face Edema

RARE SIDE EFFECTS:

  • Epidermal Necrosis
  • Hypersensitivity Angitis
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
  • Atrial Nephrosclerosis
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Alopecia

LONG-TERM EFFECTS:

  • Prolonged treatment may lead to poor functioning of bone marrow leading to Aplastic Anemia, cytopenia, nephritis and in severe cases, it can be fatal./li>

DRUG INTERACTIONS –

  • Abacavir
  • Acarbose
  • Acetylsalicylic acid
  • Baclofen
  • Balinostat
  • Cefepime
  • Dexpathenol
  • Estradiol

Allopurinol has moderate interactions with at least 15 different drugs.


MILD INTERACTIONS OF ALLOPURINOL ARE:

  • Ampicillin
  • Cyclosporine

PRECAUTIONS –

  • Consult doctor for allergy test.
  • Keep the medicine handy to avoid gout attacks.
  • Consult doctor immediately in case of rashes, skin peeling or distortment, chest pain and longtime irregular bowel movement.
  • Take medicine with plenty of water.
  • Avoid alcohol.
PREGNANCY AND LACTATION WITH ALLOPURINOL:
  • Fertility is not impaired .However, the chances of miscarriage might increase.
  • Presence of allopurinol and oxipurinal have been detected in milk of nursing mothers. Although the effect on infants is still unknown.

WARNINGS –

  • Do not overdose.
  • With history of heart stroke, avoid administering this drug.
  • Keep out of reach of children. In case of overdose, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately.

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