AMENORRHEA

04 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Absence of menstruation in women of reproductive age is known as Amenorrhea.

Types:

  1. Primary Amenorrhea:Females who never got menstrual periods even after puberty.
  2. Secondary Amenorrhea:Absence of menstrual periods in menstruating females.

CAUSES –

  1. Natural Amenorrhea:The natural halt in menstruation during the following phases:
    • Pregnancy
    • Breast-feeding
  2. Menopause
  3. Lifestyle factors:Weight loss, stress and excessive exercise can cause Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA).
  4. Medications:
    • Contraceptives
    • Antidepressants
    • Antipsychotics
    • Antiallergics
    • Antihypertensives
  5. Chemotherapy
  6. Celiac disease
  7. Physical Deformities:Physical deformities are the second most common reason of primary Amenorrhea like –
    • Lack of Reproductive organs
    • Uterine scarring
    • Structural abnormality of vagina
  8. Hormonal Imbalance:
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
    • Thyroid malfunction
    • Pituitary tumor
    • Premature menopause

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

Other than the absence of menstrual period, the other symptoms are:

  • Acne
  • Headache
  • Milky nipple charges
  • Alopecia
  • Changes in Vision
  • Excess facial hair
  • Pelvic pain

DIAGNOSIS –

Primary Amenorrheais diagnosed by testing the levels of FSH and LH in blood. X-ray is also done to check the absence of uterus in body.

Secondary Amenorrhea:First step for diagnosis is pregnancy test. Other blood tests are also done to check the levels of hormones in body. X-ray can be done to check the absence of uterus in body.

TREATMENT –

Treatment method is selected based on the underlying cause. Some common treatments are:

  • Decreasing the amount of exercise, eating more and getting support from family and friends.
  • Discontinuing the medication that caused Amenorrhea.
  • Medications like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) can be helpful to treat this condition.

RISK FACTORS –

  • Rigorous exercise
  • Family History
  • Eating Disorder like Anorexia

COMPLICATIONS:

If this condition is not treated, following complications may occur:

  • Infertility
  • Osteoporosis if there is low level of estrogen

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