04 Jun 2019
Absence of menstruation in women of reproductive age is known as Amenorrhea.
- Primary Amenorrhea:Females who never got menstrual periods even after puberty.
- Secondary Amenorrhea:Absence of menstrual periods in menstruating females.
- Natural Amenorrhea:The natural halt in menstruation during the following phases:
- Lifestyle factors:Weight loss, stress and excessive exercise can cause Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA).
- Celiac disease
- Physical Deformities:Physical deformities are the second most common reason of primary Amenorrhea like –
- Lack of Reproductive organs
- Uterine scarring
- Structural abnormality of vagina
- Hormonal Imbalance:
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Thyroid malfunction
- Pituitary tumor
- Premature menopause
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –
Other than the absence of menstrual period, the other symptoms are:
- Milky nipple charges
- Changes in Vision
- Excess facial hair
- Pelvic pain
Primary Amenorrheais diagnosed by testing the levels of FSH and LH in blood. X-ray is also done to check the absence of uterus in body.
Secondary Amenorrhea:First step for diagnosis is pregnancy test. Other blood tests are also done to check the levels of hormones in body. X-ray can be done to check the absence of uterus in body.
Treatment method is selected based on the underlying cause. Some common treatments are:
- Decreasing the amount of exercise, eating more and getting support from family and friends.
- Discontinuing the medication that caused Amenorrhea.
- Medications like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) can be helpful to treat this condition.
RISK FACTORS –
- Rigorous exercise
- Family History
- Eating Disorder like Anorexia
If this condition is not treated, following complications may occur:
- Osteoporosis if there is low level of estrogen