ANGINA PECTORIS

09 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Angina Pectoris is a medical term for chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease. In medical terms, it is called Ischemia in which one of the arteries gets narrowed down or blocked and becomes the main cause of Angina Pectoris. It happens due to inappropriate contractivity of heart muscles and coronary artery.

CLASSIFICATION –

  • Stable Angina –This type of angina is more relatable to myocardial angina. It usually occurs due to stress, cold temperatures, smoking, physical activities such as exercise, walk, and climbing stairs due to which heart demands more blood, but it gets difficult for the heart muscles when arteries are narrowed.
  • Unstable Angina –This type of angina occurs when the body is at rest and not very active, the incident becomes painful and can last for a long time.
  • Prinzmetal Angina –It occurs usually at night while sleeping when the arteries of heart tightens up and give painful experience during the attack.
  • Altered levels of neurotransmitters

CAUSES –

  • Pulmonary Embolism
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Pericarditis
  • Aortic Dissection

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

Chest pain is the major symptom with a discomfort feeling. Other common symptoms could be:

  • Sudden pain in arms, neck, back and shoulders
  • Pressure
  • Squeezing in the chest
  • Burning sensation
  • Sweating

DIAGNOSIS –

  • ECG (Electrocardiogram) – It is used to understand the electrical activity of heart to diagnose any heart abnormalities.
  • Stress test – Patient is asked to do rigorous exercise to measure and monitor the blood pressure and take ECG readings
  • Blood tests- There are certain enzymes such as troponin that leak into the blood after the heart attack. It is also useful to determine elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides etc which might result into heart attack.
  • Coronary Angiography – It is used to examine the interior of heart blood vessels through X-ray imaging. A specific dye is injected into the blood vessel which can be detected by the X-ray machine.
  • Echocardiogram- Sound waves are used to produce images of heart to determine the area of damaged heart muscles.
  • Cardiac Computerized tomography (CT) scan – X-ray tube is rotated once the body is inserted into the machine to collect images and determine the defect in the arteries.

TREATMENT –

  • Medication –
    Nitrates – Relaxes coronary arteries to reduce the pressure on heart.
    Aspirin – A blood thinner to prevent blood clots.
    Beta Blockers –Blocks the effect of the hormone adrenaline to reduce BP
    Statins – Lowers the formation of blood cholesterol
    Calcium Channel Blockers – Widens the blood vessels
  • Lifestyle factors – Healthy diet which contains whole grains, fruits and vegetables reduces the risk of heart problem. Yoga, light exercises, physical therapy can also be used to avoid Angina.
  • Surgery – Angioplasty is commonly used to treat Angina, where a stent is inserted to widen the artery permanently.

RISK FACTORS-

  • Diabetes
  • Consuming Narcotic Supplement- Intake of Tobacco, chain smokers are at greater risk
  • High blood triglyceride levels
  • Obesity
  • Stress

EPIDEMIOLOGY-

  • The prevalence is more in men than women which might increase with age.

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