ANXIETY DISORDER

10 May 2019

ABSTRACT –

Anxiety is a normal emotion which can be felt every now and then. It is determined as mental illness and distress with intense and extreme fear about the daily incidents and activities. Sometimes, it leads to panic attacks by sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear. It also becomes difficult to control the panic behavior in an individual. Examples include generalized  disorder, social  disorder, specific phobias and separation anxiety disorder.

CAUSES –

There are medical causes and mental illnesses which are:

  • Reaction from alcohol and anti-anxiety medications
  • Thyroid problems, such as hyperthyroidism
  • Misuse of drugs
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Respiratory disorders like COPD and asthma
  • Chronic pain
  • Side effects of certain medications.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Nervousness and impatience
  • Panic, fear, and uneasiness
  • Increased heart rate
  • Rapid breathing (hyperventilation) or breathlessness
  • Sweating, weakness or tiredness
  • Trembling, shivering and unsteady
  • Cold, heavy sweating, numbness
  • Difficulty in sleep
  • Gastrointestinal problems

TYPES –

  • Agoraphobia –Avoiding the places where uneasiness, fear or embarrassment can arise
  • Panic disorder –Immediate feelings of anxiety and terror which gives panic attacks very quickly. It also involves sweating, chest pain, breathlessness and heart palpitations.
  • Social anxiety disorder –High levels of fear with feeling of anxiety for social gatherings, self-consciousness about being judged or ridiculed, embarrassment.
  • Specific phobias –Fear towards a particular situation or object and tries to avoid it. It can aggravate to panic attacks.
  • Substance and Induce d-Misuse of drugs, medications or certain substances resulting into intense panic attack.

PREVENTION –

  • Meditation and healthy diet
  • Relaxation exercises, including deep breathing
  • Visualization
  • Adequate rest
  • Stay fit and active
  • Avoid misuse of drug and alcohol

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Psychological evaluation –Visit psychiatrist, psychologist, or another mental health specialist to discuss about the feelings and thoughts to get relief.

TREATMENT –

  • Psychotherapy –It helps in effective treatment for this disease by reducing the symptoms. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is generally a short-term treatment, which focuses on specific skills to improve the condition and it includes exposure therapy to manage the situation and its symptoms.
  • Medications –These short term medications are given as per the type and level of anxiety disorder. It includes antidepressants, anti-anxiety medicines and sedatives can also be given in some cases.

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Approximately 10% of teenagers and 40% of adults suffer from the anxiety disorder.

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