ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDERS

04 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

ADHD refers to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder which affects children majorly and this might get continued to adulthood also. It includes behavioral problems like difficulty in paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder results in low self-esteem, trouble in relationship and poor performance in school etc. It is clearly noticeable when circumstances around child changes for example, going to school for the very first time.

CAUSES –

Causes of this disorder are unclear but it may include:

  • Brain function and structure – Certain areas are smaller than the other, slow growth and imbalance of brain chemicals
  • Premature birth
  • Low weight at the time of birth
  • Problems with central nervous system (CNS)
  • Damage in brain
  • Alcohol, drug consumption or smoking during pregnancy

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  1. Inattentiveness –
    • Difficulty in staying focused and attentive on any task or details
    • Trouble in organizing tasks and activities
    • Don’t like taking mental efforts and forgetting routine activities to do sometimesh
    • Get distracted easily
    • Difficulty in following instructions
  2. Hyperactivity –
    • Continuous squirming and fidgeting with feet, hands or in the seat
    • Unable to sit in quiet and calm environment/li>
    • Excessive talking and physical movements
  3. Impulsiveness –
    • Acting without thinking
    • Getting blank while answering
    • Interrupting others while talking

DIAGNOSIS –

It can be diagnosed with:

  • Gathering information on personal life, family history, school records and current medical condition from teachers and parents
  • Medical exam to study causes and symptoms
  • Interviews and questionnaires with parents, teachers and known onesg
  • ADHD rating scales

TREATMENT –

  • Stimulant medication which contains Amphetamines and Methylphenidates. Although it has risk of heart problems and side effects.
  • Other medications for treating ADHD effectively contains Atomoxetine, Antidepressants, Guanfacine and Clonidine.
  • Yoga and meditation
  • Vitamin and mineral rich food

RISK FACTORS –

  • Blood relatives with ADHD or other mental problems
  • Toxic substances in environment like lead
  • Consumption of drug, alcohol or smoking during pregnancy
  • Premature birth

PREVENTIONS –

  • Stop smoking, drinking alcohol or taking drugs during pregnancy
  • Protecting from exposure of toxins in the environment.
  • Limit exposure to TV and video games for child.

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • It has been estimated that 7.2% children are affected from ADHD globally.

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