BACK PAIN

05 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Back pain is the most common condition which is usually one of the symptom of several diseases. It occurs due to injury, some physical activities or medical reasons. The pain might improve with reclining. It can happen to different people of any age group. Chances of developing back ache becomes more when a person gets older. It can be linked to spondylosis, spondylitis, sciatica, slip disc, arthritis, cancer or spine infections etc.

CAUSES –

  • Muscle spasm i.e. contractions of muscles
  • Strain in ligaments of spine
  • Bulges or cracks in disc which may give pressure on the nerves of spine
  • Damages in cartilage (Osteoarthritis) and bone weakness (osteoporosis)
  • Scoliosis i.e. abnormal curve in the spine
  • Degeneration of spinal bones
  • Injury or fractures due to accident or improper heavy lifting
  • Improper body posture

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Muscular back ache
  • Shooting, sudden and stabbing pains
  • Radiating pain towards hips and legs
  • Pain increases with bending, lifting, standing or walking, also even while relaxing
  • Numbness in the back

DIAGNOSIS –

  • X-ray
  • MRI and CT scan shows condition of bones, muscles, tissue, nerves, discs etc.
  • Blood test determines the cause of pain whether it is due to infection
  • Bone scan diagnoses tumor or cracks, fracture in the bones
  • Electromyography measures electrical signal of nerves and response of muscles

TREATMENT –

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Muscle relaxants is prescribed when OTC pain reliever does not work
  • Topical pain relievers involve creams and ointments
  • Narcotics- Drugs used as short term remedy
  • Antidepressants
  • Physiotherapy
  • Exercise
  • Surgery varies from case to case and depends on severity

PREVENTIONS –

  • Exercise and Yoga
  • Maintaining weight as per BMI
  • Building muscle strength and flexibility

RISK FACTORS –

  • Age – It generally affects people with age group of 30 and above
  • Lack of exercise results in weak muscles
  • Poor physical fitness
  • Pregnancy
  • Occupational activities
  • Obesity

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Everyone experiences back pain at least once in their life time regardless of gender. Lower back ache is most commonly seen.
  • 40% of people among adult population reported chronic back pain.

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