BLADDER CANCER

06 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Bladder is an organ at the lower pelvis. The main function of bladder is to store and control urine because of its flexible muscular wall, it can be extended whenever required by the body. There are different layers on the bladder wall and the bladder cancer mainly starts with urothelium or transitional epithelium which is the inside lining of the bladder. Transitional cells carcinoma is cancerous that forms in the cells of urothelium. The cancer might spread to lymph nodes and can also affect liver, lungs, bones and other parts of the body. These cells develop mutation, keeps on dividing unstoppably which results into tumor cells.

Types of Bladder Cancer:

  1. Transitional Cell Carcinoma – Occurs in the inner lining of the bladder. These cells are also present in ureters and urethra and tumors can be developed in those cells as well.
  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma – It grows only in response to some irritation or infection in the bladder which can sometimes turn into cancerous cells.
  3. Adenocarcinoma – It initiates in the cells that produce mucus-secreting glands in the bladder.

CAUSES –

  • Genetic defects
  • Smoking
  • Parasitic Infection
  • Chemical exposure
  • Exposure to carcinogens(cancer causing agents)

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Hematuria – Blood in the urine
  • Pain during urination
  • Frequent Micturition
  • Back pain
  • Pain in lower abdomen

DIAGNOSIS –

  1. Cystoscopy-A thin tube is inserted inside urethra to examine bladder cavity.
  2. CT Scan
  3. Urine Cytology
  4. Imaging Tests
  5. Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TURBT) –Tumor sample is taken to test the presence of bladder cancer and its stage.Adrenal Destruction
  6. Blue Light Cystoscopy –Catheter is used to put imaging solution into the bladder and after an hour, cystoscopy is used to inspect bladder with white light and blue light. Since, only blue color can detect cancer cells, blue light helps in the diagnosis of cancer.

TREATMENT-

  • Surgical Treatment
    1. TURBT
    2. Intravesical Therapy- The drug is directly put inside the bladder with the help of catheter.
    3. Surgery for urine to pass out from the body-
  • Immunotherapy
    1. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) drug
    2. Interferon alfa-2b – It is a synthetic form of interferon which is a protein to fight against infections.
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy

PREVENTIONS –

  • Quit smoking
  • Safe working with chemicals
  • Consume more amount of water
  • Consume more fruits and vegetables in diet.

RISK FACTORS –

  • Smoking
  • Aging
  • Exposure to harmful chemicals/carcinogens
  • Side effects of certain diabetic medications
  • Bladder inflammation
  • Hereditary factors

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Being the 10th most common cancer globally, it is 6th most occurring in men and 17th most in women.
  • In a year, approximately 5, 00,000 new cases reports bladder cancer.

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