BLEPHARITIS

06 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Blepharitis is the inflammation of eyelids or at the base of eyelashes area. It occurs when oil glands near the eyelashes gets clogged. It results in irritation and red eyes with inflammation. Different reasons can cause Blepharitis. Chronic Blepharitis is difficult to treat. It can be uncomfortable and unpleasant to look. It is not contagious and does not cause damage to eyesight for longer period. Poor hygiene is not always the reason.

CAUSES –

  • Seborrheic dermatitis i.e. dandruff on scalp and eyebrows
  • Meibomian gland dysfunction in which glands don’t secrete enough oil into the tears
  • Bacterial/ fungal infections
  • Mites or lice on eyelashes
  • Dryness of eyes
  • Allergic reaction due to eye medication, contact lens solution or eye makeup

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Swelling of eyelids, sometimes appear red in color
  • Red eyes
  • Burning and stinging sensation
  • Greasy eyelids
  • Skin flakes around the eyes
  • Frequent blinking
  • Sensation in the eyes which feels like foreign bodies
  • Crusts at the base of eyelashes
  • Watery eyes
  • Photophobia

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Examination of eyelids by using special magnifying instrument
  • Skin swabbing to collect sample for diagnosing the type of fungal infection, allergy or bacteria
  • Slit light examination

TREATMENT –

  • Oral antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Eye drops or ointments
  • Calcineurin inhibitor works on immune system to reduce skin inflammation
  • Electromechanical lid margin debridement –
    It removes bacteria, fungus, mites from eyelids and opens clogged Meibomian glands.
  • Thermal pulsation treatment melts and expresses material obstructing the meibomian glands.
  • Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy opens clogged eyelid glands.
  • Eyelid scrubs remove bacteria, crusts from eyelids.

PREVENTIONS –

  • Proper cleaning of eyelids
  • Artificial tears as prescribed to overcome eye dryness
  • Placing warm cloth on eyes and use as eye mask
  • Massaging of eyelids releases oil from the glands
  • Control dandruff, mites

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Abnormal growth or excessive falling of eyelashes
  • Abnormal oil secretion results in excess tearing or dry eyes
  • Difficulty in wearing contact lenses
  • Sty
  • Corneal injury in extreme cases
  • Conjunctivitis

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • It is not specific to any age group or gender but the probability of getting this is more in females as compared to males.
  • Estimation shows that 8.8% of population of age 40 and above are suffering from Blepharitis.

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