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Posted by -Dr-kamlesh

A To Z Disease Directory / 01 Jun 2019

BONE CANCER

ABSTRACT -

The long bones of arms and legs and pelvis are majorly affected from bone cancer although it can also appear in any part of the bone. It is very rare in adults but some types of bone cancer occur mainly in children.

It is classified into:

  1. Primary bone cancer- It forms in the cells of the bone.
  2. Secondary bone cancer- The origin is usually some other organ which spread to bones.

Types:
Chondrosarcoma, Ewing Sarcoma, Osteosarcoma

CAUSES –

The exact cause is still unknown. It might be due to DNA mutations which activates oncogenes or inactivate tumor suppressor genes.

TYPES –

  • Osteosarcoma -It is the most common type of bone cancer. The cancerous cells are created in the bones affecting children and young adults. In exceptional situations, it occurs outside the bones known as extra skeletal osteosarcomas.
  • Chondrosarcoma -The cancerous cells starts in the cartilage cells and move to the bones. It usually occurs in middle-aged and older people.
  • Ewing sarcoma –It usually develops in the pelvis, legs or arms and affects children and young adults.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Swelling and softness in the affected area
  • Weakened bones increases the risk of fracture
  • Fatigue
  • Bone pain
  • Involuntary weight loss

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  • Computerized Tomography (CT)
  • Bone Scanning And Biopsy
  • X-ray

TREATMENT –

  • Surgery – It removes the cancerous tumor and tissues that surrounding bones. Limb-sparing surgery is a surgical intervention in which the bones are replaced with another part of the body for infected bones.
  • Chemotherapy – Strong anti-cancer drugs are used to kill cancer cells. This treatment can cure Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma.
  • Radiation therapy – High-powered beams of energy such as X-rays is used to kill and shrink cancer cells henceforth destroy the tumor.

PREVENTION –

  • Avoid using tobacco
  • Healthy diet
  • Physically active and maintaining weight
  • Get vaccinated for Hepatitis B, Human Papillomavirus
  • Regular medical care and checkup

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

The global incidence has shown the age distribution pattern, high among children (age group of 10-20) and increases more at the age of 40 and above.

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