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Multiplication and growth of unstoppable abnormal cells which subsequently results into tumor in brain causes Brain Tumor. These are either cancerous - Malignant or noncancerous- Benign or cancer that spreads to brain from other body parts can also cause brain tumor.Types:
Primary Brain Tumor –Benign or Malignant
- Chordomas – Slowly growing tumors that are most common in people with age 50 to 60.
- Craniopharyngiomas – Removing them is a bit complicated because they are located near critical structure of brain.
- Gangliocytomas – Rare tumors that include differentiated neoplastic nerve cells.
- Glomus jugulare – These are located near the base of the skull.
- Meningiomas – Originating from meninges membrane which covers brain and spinal cord.
- Pineocytomas- It arises from Penial cells which predominantly occurs in adults.
- Pituitary adenomas- Most common intracranial tumors after gliomas, meningiomas and schwannomas.
- Schwannomas- They initiate from nerve cells that provides electrical insulation.
- Gliomas – Most common adult brain tumor which accounts for 78% of the malignant tumors.
- Astrocytomas – Starts from star shaped glial cells, part of supportive tissues in the brain called astrocytes.
- Ependymomas – Comprises of 2 to 3 percent of the brain tumor.
- Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) – Grow rapidly and spread to other tissues with poor prognosis.
- Medulloblastomas – Most common in children which arises from cerebellum.
- Oligodendrogliomas – Derived from myelin making cells.
The causes are unclear but there are chances of the following causes which might give rise to brain tumor:
- Inherited gene changes increase the risk of brain and spinal cord tumors
- Cell alteration which makes the cells multiply uncontrollably can form tumor
- Certain radiations
- Contact with harmful chemicals
RISK FACTORS –
- Family History
- Exposure to radiation
- Pre-existing chronic diseases like obesity
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –
- Difficulty in communication
- Paralysis on one side of the body
- Vision and hearing changes
- CT scan
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy – Used to determine the chemical content of the tumor and the nature of lesions.
- Positron emission tomography (PET scan) – Diagnose recurring tumor cells
- The incidence of primary malignant tumor is 3.4 % per 100,000 population.
- Prevalence is 3.9% in males and 3.0% in females per 100,000 population.