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Posted by -Dr-khanna

A To Z Disease Directory / 05 Aug 2019

DIABETES

ABSTRACT -

Diabetes is a disease which occurs when the blood sugar rises in the body. Blood glucose is a major source of energy generated by Insulin hormone secreted by pancreas. Sometimes, the insulin is not generated in an appropriate amount which results into unused glucose inside the body thus marking the presence of Diabetes.

Types:
  • Type 1 Diabetes -Also known as Juvenile Diabetes. The immune system is majorly responsible for type 1 diabetes. It affects pancreas which results into less insulin production. It can occur at any age but more common in children and young adults.
  • Type 2 Diabetes - The cells of the body becomes resistant to insulin, due to which it requires more amount of insulin.
  • Gestational Diabetes – It occurs during pregnancy which is hyperglycemia with blood glucose value more than normal level.

CAUSES -

Type 1 –

  • Viral infection
  • Bacterial Infection
  • Intake of toxins with foods

Type 2 –

  • Overweight
  • Intake more amount of carbohydrates
  • Stress
  • Heredity
  • Sedentary Behavior
  • Artificial sweeteners

Gestational Diabetes –

  • Overweight before pregnant
  • Family history of diabetes
  • Newborn with certain birth defects
  • High blood pressure or other medical complications
  • Sedentary Behavior
  • Suffering from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCODs)

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS -

  • Feeling thirsty frequently
  • Micturition
  • Extreme hunger
  • Blurry vision
  • Frequent infections and slow healing on gums, skin, vaginal area
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Numbness in feet
  • Dark skin under armpits
  • Feeling sweaty
  • Feeling weak
  • Weight loss

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Cardiovascular Disease – Diabetes increase the risk of heart disease such as Angina, Coronary Artery Disease.
  • Neuropathy – More amount of sugar deposition damages the walls of blood vessels.
  • Nephropathy ( Kidney Damage)
  • Retinopathy (Eye damage)
  • Foot Damage
  • Hearing problems
  • Skin problems
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Preeclampsia – High blood pressure, excess protein in urine, swelling in legs and feet

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Glycated hemoglobin test – It counts average blood sugar from past 2 to 3 months.
  • Fasting blood sugar test
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test – After fasting overnight, the blood glucose is tested. Then, the blood glucose is tested again after drinking sugary liquid.
  • Initial Glucose Challenge Test
  • Follow glucose tolerance test

TREATMENT –

  • Monitoring Blood Glucose Level
  • Insulin administration
  • Oral Medications
  • Pancreas Transplantation
  • Bariatric Surgery – Weight Loss Surgery
  • Regular exercise
  • Healthy diet

RISK FACTORS –

  • Family history
  • Environmental factors
  • Geography
  • Weight
  • Inactive personality
  • Age
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • High blood pressure
  • Abnormal levels of cholesterol

PREVENTION –

  • Exclude carbohydrates from diet
  • Regular Exercise
  • More water consumption
  • Lose weight
  • Quit smoking
  • High fiber diet

EPIDEMIOLOGY -

  • According to WHO, diabetes is the 6th most leading cause of death that is almost 1.6 million population.
  • It is the major cause of blindness, kidney failure, and heart attacks according to WHO.
  • Prevalence of this disease has been rising in middle and low income countries.

Have any questions? or Need help Contact us – 022 6163 6163 | support@medicus.com

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