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Posted by -Dr-pankaj

A To Z Disease Directory / 15 Jun 2019

GLAUCOMA

ABSTRACT -

Glaucoma damages optic nerves due to high intraocular pressure built up in the eyes. If the pressure is not controlled the eyes may get damaged, leading to loss of vision.

Types-

  1. Open Angle – Chronic Glaucoma, caused by slow clogging of the drainage canals which results into increased eye pressure
  2. Close Angle – Acute glaucoma or narrow angle glaucoma in which the eye pressure rises quickly.

CAUSES -

  • Eye Drops
  • Blocked drainage in the eye
  • Medications – Corticosteroids
  • Reduced blood flow to the optic nerve
  • High blood pressure

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Loss of vision gradually
  • Eye pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Blurred vision
  • Halos around lights
  • Redness in the eyes
  • Sudden vision problems

DIAGNOSIS-

  • Measuring Intraocular Pressure – Painless procedure to measure internal eye pressure
  • Optic Nerve Damage Test – Checks the presence of Glaucoma through an instrument to look directly through the pupil to the back of the eye.n
  • Visual Field Test – Checks peripheral vision
  • Visual Activity
  • Pachymetry – Determines the thickness of the cornea

TREATMENT –

  • Eye drops
    1. Prostaglandins – To treat open-angle glaucoma which increases the flow of the fluid
    2. Beta Blockers – Reduce intraocular pressure in the eye
    3. Alpha-Adregenic Agonists – Reduce the production of aqueous humor and increase the flow of fluid
    4. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    5. Miotic Agents – Increases the flow of the fluid
  • Oral Medication
  • Surgery
    1. Laser Surgery
    2. Trabeculectomy
    3. Drainage Implants

RISK FACTORS –

  • Intraocular Pressure
  • Age
  • Ethnicity
  • Family History
  • Medical Conditions such as Diabetes, High blood pressure
  • Other eye conditions
  • Long term use of Corticosteroid

PREVENTION-

  • Frequent Eye check up
  • Wearable eye protection
  • Nutritious diet
  • Treating elevated eye pressure

EPIDEMIOLOGY-

  • Glaucoma is responsible for 5.2 million people go blind worldwide.

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