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Posted by -Dr-parag

A To Z Disease Directory / 24 Jun 2019

MENINGITIS

ABSTRACT -

Meningitis is an inflammation of meninges membranes around the brain and spinal cord. It occurs due to viral, bacterial and fungal infections. It requires treatment of antibiotics immediately, otherwise it is life-threatening if left untreated. Other types of meningitis includes parasitic and non-infectious meningitis.

CAUSES -

  • Bacterial meningitis occurs due to Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B Streptococcus.
  • Viruses like herpes simplex virus, HIV, mumps, West Nile virus leads to viral meningitis.
  • Low immunity
  • Allergies or chemical reactions associated with drug
  • Cancer or other inflammatory diseases

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • High fever
  • Severe headache
  • Stiffness in neck
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Muscle pain
  • Seizures
  • Loss of appetite and thirst
  • Skin rashes
  • Difficulty in concentration

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Brain damage
  • Kidney disorders
  • Hearing problems
  • Shock or trauma
  • Gait problems
  • Memory issues
  • Death

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Blood test
  • X-ray, CT Scan, MRI
  • Spinal tap: Sample test of cerebrospinal fluid

TREATMENT –

  • Intravenous Antibiotics
  • Corticosteroids
  • Oral Antibiotics
  • OTC Medications
  • Anti-fungal Medications
  • Anti-viral Treatments

RISK FACTORS –

  • People who have missed the vaccination in childhood.
  • Adolescents
  • Living in community organizational settings like dormitories, military, boarding schools and child care facilities
  • Pregnancy
  • Weakened immune system

PREVENTIONS –

  • Maintain hygiene
  • Get vaccinated
  • Boost immunity
  • Be cautious about diet at the time of pregnancy

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Estimation shows that over 1.2 million population gets affected every year with bacterial meningitis globally.
  • Skipping vaccination in childhood is a major factor of getting affected with this condition in growing phase.

 

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