CATARACTS

07 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Cataracts is an unclear vision due to the clouding of the lens in the eye.

Types:

  • Nuclear Cataracts
  • Cortical Cataracts
  • Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts
  • Congenital Cataracts

CAUSES –

  • Age
  • Trauma due to injury
  • Radiation
  • Smoking and alcohol
  • Medications like steroids
  • Post eye surgery
  • Genetics
  • Dermatological conditions like atopic dermatitis, eczema etc.
  • Inadequate Vitamin C
  • Other Medical conditions like Diabetes, Hypothyroidism etc.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Cloudy, blurred or dim vision
  • Reduced vision
  • Sensitivity to light and glare
  • Frequent changes of glasses and contact lens
  • Seeing colored halos due to hydration of lens
  • Increasing difficulty with vision at night
  • Need brighter light for reading and doing other activities
  • Yellowing or fading of colors in vision
  • Double vision

DIAGNOSIS –

Dilation of pupils is the first step of examination of eye followed by eye checkup. The test to detect cataract are:

  • Retinal exam
  • Slit Lamp exam
  • Refraction and visual acuity test

TREATMENT –

Types of surgeries which are used to remove cataract:

  • Phacoemulsification
  • Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction (ECCE)
  • Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (MSICS)
  • Intra Capsular Cataract Extraction (ICCE)

RISK FACTORS –

  • Age
  • Obesity
  • Smoking and excessive drinking
  • Diabetes
  • Excess exposure to sunlight
  • Prolonged use of corticosteroids
  • High blood pressure
  • Eye injury or inflammation
  • Previous eye surgery

PREVENTION –

There are no studies that prove that the cataract can be prevented or slowed down, but several ways have been helpful:

  • Regular eye examination
  • Quitting smoking
  • Reducing alcohol consumption
  • Following a healthy lifestyle
  • Using sunglasses under sunlight

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Around 20 million people globally go blind due to cataract.
  • 5 – 20% of world childhood blindness has been estimated.

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