ABSTRACT – Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage caused to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue of the retina...
Diabetic Retinopathy is the damage caused to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue of the retina due to diabetes mellitus.
Early Diabetic Retinopathy
Advanced Diabetic Retinopathy
Uncontrolled sugar in blood blocks the blood vessels that nourishes the retina, cutting of its blood supply. Due to this, the eye tries to grow new blood vessels. These vessels don’t develop properly and leak into the eye, building a pressure. The pressure damages the eye and causes Diabetic Retinopathy
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is another cause of this condition.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –
Symptoms are not seen in the early stages. As the disease progresses, symptoms may be:
Blurred and fluctuating vision
Dark stings or spots floating in the vision
Dark or empty areas in the vision
Impaired color vision
Specks of blood in vision
Visual acuity test
Ophthalmoscopy or fundus photography
Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT)
Eye examination to look for signs like leaking blood vessels, damaged nerve tissue etc.
IDx-DR, an Artificial Intelligence (AI) device to analyze images of retina
CF cannot get completely cured but treatment can ease the symptoms and reduce complications
Injection of Steroids or Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the eye
Antihypertensives to treat hypertension
Avoid tobacco intake
Treatment of OSA
Modified grid to treat macular edema
Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) or scatter laser treatment
Medications like Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide
RISK FACTORS –
Duration of diabetes, i.e., the longer the duration of diabetes, the greater is the risk
Uncontrolled blood sugar
High blood pressure
Patients suffering from Down’s syndrome never acquire diabetic retinopathy.
Monitor and control blood sugar
Control blood pressure and cholesterol
Go to doctor immediately on vision changes
African-American, Hispanic and Native American have a higher risk of getting diabetic Retinopathy.