ABSTRACT – Bronchitis causes an inflammation in the lining of bronchial tubes. Bronchial tubes are the airways which carries...
Bronchitis causes an inflammation in the lining of bronchial tubes. Bronchial tubes are the airways which carries air to and from the lungs. Thick mucus can be seen while coughing which can be yellow/grey color (phlegm) or no color at all. It makes breathing difficult and oxygen supply to the lungs. Bronchitis generally gets developed from cold or other respiratory infections. It can be acute or chronic. Chronic bronchitis is one of the symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). It may also cause sore throat and wheezing.
Virus causing cold or flu
Droplets coming out while coughing or sneezing can cause infection
Dust, fumes, vapors
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –
Coughing with mucus or phlegm
Fever & chillness
Watery cold or blocked nose
Pneumonia in chronic and serious cases
Physical examination using stethoscope
Sputum test – Mucus can be tested to diagnose the type of infection
Pulmonary function test – Spirometer to measure how much air lungs can hold and how quickly it can release it back
Medications depends on symptoms and type of infection which includes:
Bronchodilators – Opens the bronchial tubes and removes mucus
Mucolytics – Loosening the mucus to make it easier for cough (sputum) to come out
Anti- inflammatory medicines
Pulmonary rehabilitation program – Work with a respiratory therapist to help and improve breathing
Antibiotics – Effective for bacterial infections, but not for viral infections. These may also prevent secondary infections
Yearly vaccination for flu like infections
Surgical mask to keep dust, fumes, bacteria away
RISK FACTORS –
Weak immune system or less immunity
Exposure to lung irritants like dust, fumes
Age – Older people, children and infants are more prone to this infection
Cough formation which varies from body to body
44 out of 1000 adults gets affected with acute bronchitis annually mostly during cold weathers (monsoon and winter).
It is estimated that 65 million people have moderate or chronic bronchitis globally.