ABSTRACT – Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that forms in the breast because of uncontrollable multiplication of cells....
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that forms in the breast because of uncontrollable multiplication of cells. Both men and women can suffer from this cancer but it is very rare in men. It is the second most common cancer occurring in women.
Common types of Breast Cancer:
In Situ Cancers:
a) Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) b) Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)
Invasive (Infiltrating) Breast Cancer:
a) Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC)
Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast
Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast
Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast
Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast
Cribriform Carcinoma of the Breast
b) Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC)
Less common types of Breast Cancer:
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Paget’s Disease of the Nipple
Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast
Molecular Subtypes of cancer
3 stages of breast cancer based on TNM system:
Size of the Tumor (T), whether the tumor has spread to the lymph Nodes or not (N), and whether or not the tumor has Metastasized (M).
Stage 0 is pre-cancerous stage.
Stages 1-3 denote that the tumor is in the breast or lymph node.
Stage 4 is metastatic cancer which tells that the cancer has spread to the other parts of the body.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –
A lump or thickening that is different from the breast tissue
New Inverted nipple
Change in the shape, size and appearance of the breast
Pitting or redness of the breast skin
Dimpling or skin puckering over the skin of the breast
Scaling, crusting, peeling or flaking of the pigmented area of the skin surrounding the nipple
Rash on or around the nipple
Discharge from Nipples
Mastodynia or swelling in breast, armpit or around the collar bone
Imaging by Ultrasound or MRI
Physical examination by healthcare provider
Mammography – Physical examination to detect lumps and other lesions
Microscopic analysis called Fine needle aspiration
DNA Assays help to diagnose type of cancer for further process of treatment.
Depending on the stage of cancer, treatment options are selected. It is usually treated with surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy or both. Medications used in this cancer are:
Hormone blocking therapy
RISK FACTORS –
There are 2 categories of risk factors:
Fixed Factors that cannot be changed like
a) Gender b)Age c)Genetics and family history d)Having periods at a younger age e)Menopause at an older age f)Increased levels of certain hormones g)Medical conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, Lupus Erythematosus, Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia
Modifiable Factors that can be changed like:
a)Radiation exposure b)Obesity c)Never been pregnant d)Alcohol consumption e)Exposure to light pollution f)Tobacco intake g)Exposure to radiation h)Having the first child at an older age
Awareness regarding Breast cancer
Limit postmenopausal hormone therapy
Medication like Selective Estrogen receptor modulators for women with high risk of Breast cancer
Around 12% women suffer from Breast Cancer globally.
Occurrence of breast cancer is lowest in less developed countries and greatest in developed countries.