ABSTRACT – Dystonia is a disorder that involves involuntary muscle contraction causing monotonous or twisting movements and tremor. It...
Dystonia is a disorder that involves involuntary muscle contraction causing monotonous or twisting movements and tremor. It can affect any part of a muscle, a muscle group or the entire body. The spasms usually range from mild to severe.
The exact cause of this disorder is still unknown but it depends upon whether the cause is primary or secondary.
Primary Cause –
Problem in one of the part of brain called Basal Ganglia which includes caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus in the cerebrum.
Neurotransmitters are produced in the basal ganglia causing improper muscle function.
Secondary Cause –
Intake of carbon monoxide
Cerebral palsy affecting body movements and muscle coordination
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Infections like Encephalitis, TB or HIV
Mental stroke, traumatic brain or spine injury
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –
Dragging of foot and toes
Cervical Dystonia involves involuntary pulling of the neck
Oromandibular Dystonia – Difficulty in speech
Physical disabilities affecting daily activities
Problem in vision
Problem in jaw movements, swallowing or speech
Depression and anxiety
MRI or CT Scans
Certain medications like muscle relaxants, Botulinum toxin etc
Surgery in severe conditions – Deep Brain Stimulation and Selective Denervation Surgery
Estimation shows that Dystonia affects about 1% of the population worldwide.
Women are more prone to this disorder than men.