CELIAC DISEASE

01 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Celiac Disease or Coeliac Disease is also known as Celiac Sprue or Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy. It is a chronic disorder affecting the small intestine. It is an immune reaction caused due to eating food containing gluten like wheat, barley etc. Over a period of time, this reaction damages the villi lining of small intestine and stops it from absorbing nutrients.

CAUSES –

  • Glutenins and gliadins found in crops of the tribe Triticeae and Aveneae
  • Genetics
  • Gastrointestinal infections
  • Infant feeding practices
  • Pregnancy and child birth
  • Surgery
  • Stress

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

Gastrointestinal symptoms:

  • Steatorrhoea
  • Weight loss
  • Constipation
  • Bloating and gas
  • Abdominal pain and cramps
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Mouth ulcers

Malabsorption related symptoms:

  • Anemia
  • Osteoporosis or osteomalacia
  • Abnormal coagulation
  • Selenium deficiency
  • Copper and Zinc deficiency
  • Headache and fatigue
  • Effect on nervous system like balancing problem, cognitive impairment etc.
  • Joint pain
  • Growth failure or puberty delay

Miscellaneous

  • Dermatitis Herpetiformis
  • Hyposplenism
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency
  • Pregnancy complications
  • Abnormal liver function

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Blood test
  • Endoscopy
  • Pathology
  • Gluten withdrawal
  • Other diagnostic tests like essential mineral and vitamin deficiency test, thyroid test etc.
  • Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry

TREATMENT –

RISK FACTORS –

  • Genetics
  • Surgery
  • Stress
  • Gut infection
  • Pregnancy
  • Other medical conditions like Diabetes, Down Syndrome, Addison’s disease etc
  • Feeding food containing gluten to infants after 6 months of age

COMPLICATIONS –

If this condition is not treated, it may cause:

  • Infertility and miscarriage
  • Malnutrition
  • Bone weakening
  • Cancer
  • Nervous system problems
  • Lactose intolerance

People who do not respond to gluten free diet may suffer from:

  • Microscopic Colitis
  • Bacteria in small intestine
  • Refractory Celiac Disease
  • Difficulty in digesting sugar found in food items like honey and fruits
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Dysfunctional pancreas

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Approximately 1 in 100 people suffer from this disease worldwide.
  • Indian and western culture have a high risk of Celiac disease than African, Japanese and Chinese culture.

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