CHOLERA

05 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Vibrio cholerae is a bacteria which causes Cholera and usually comes through contaminated water. It causes severe watery diarrhea and results in dehydration. Severe dehydration can lead to death if it remains untreated. Cholera is most common and spreads in region with poor sanitation, crowded place or slum area. Cholera infection results in formation of Cholera toxin (CTX) in small intestine, it disturbs the normal flow of sodium and chloride thus results in rapid loss of fluids.

CAUSES –

Causes of Absence Seizures are unclear but it can be caused by:

  • Vibrio cholerae bacterium causes this infection
  • Contaminated water which contains human waste or industrial waste
  • Contaminated food
  • Vegetables grown in contaminated water
  • Raw or uncooked fish and seafood from polluted water

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Excess of watery diarrhea, also called as ‘Rise Water Stools’
  • Dehydration – It results in loose skin, dry mouth, sunken eyes, low BP, rapid weight loss etc.
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Cramps in legs
  • Rapid heart rate

DIAGNOSIS –

  • On the basis of signs and symptoms
  • Lab Test – Analysis of stool sample for diagnosis
  • X-ray

TREATMENT –

  • Oral Hydration Solution (OHS) or Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)
  • Intravenous fluids
  • Antibiotics
  • Supplementation of zinc may decrease diarrhea

PREVENTION –

  • Cholera vaccine
  • Maintain hygiene
  • Drink boiled water
  • Eat properly cooked food, avoid eating street food
  • Eat fruits which can be peeled easily like banana, oranges etc.

RISK FACTORS –

  • Poor sanitary conditions
  • Low stomach acid ( Hypochlorhydria or Achlorhydria)
  • Raw or undercooked seafood

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Estimation shows that 3-5 million people are affected worldwide every year.
  • It has been observed that people with blood group ‘O’ are more prone to get affected from Cholera.

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