Deep Vein Thrombosis

15 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis) occurs usually in the leg where the blood clots in the deep veins. This can lead to swelling and pain in the legs, without showing much symptoms. It also blocks the flow of blood (Pulmonary Embolism) from the veins which is a serious problem and can happen if one stands for a long time or there is not much movement in the legs due to any surgery or accident or the person is bedridden.

CAUSES –

Anything which prevents the normal blood flow can cause Deep Vein Thrombosis such as:
  • Vein injury
  • Surgery
  • Certain medications
  • Less movement

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Breathlessness
  • Itchiness and rashes with red skin
  • Leg pain
  • Thickened blood vessels
  • Cramps in the legs

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Pulmonary Embolism involves difficulty in breathing, coughing of blood, dizziness.
  • Postphlebitic Syndrome – Blood clot forms in the veins after damage reduces blood flow gives rise to Postphlebitic Syndrome which causes skin sores and discoloration, swelling and pain in the legs.

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Blood test
  • Venography – A dye is injected into the large vein of a foot or ankle to look for clots in the image under X-Ray.
  • CT or MRI scans
  • Ultrasound

TREATMENT –

  • Compression Stocking – To help and prevent swelling and worn like socks till knee length.
  • Body movement
  • Regular check up
  • Clot busters – A type of drug which clears the clot quickly
  • Thinners for blood to limit and reduce the blood’s ability to clot

RISK FACTORS –

  • Overweight
  • Pregnancy
  • Sitting on one place for a longer period of time due to paralysis, injury, travelling or bed rest
  • Smoking
  • Old age, chances of developing DVT increases with increasing age specially after 60
  • Family history

PREVENTIONS

  • Avoid sitting on one place for long hours
  • Maintain weight
  • Healthy lifestyle

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Among all the cases found, around two-third cases relates to DVT, one-third refers to pulmonary embolism representing 5%-10% cases of both inclusive.
  • During pregnancy, incidence of DVT is approximately 1 case per 1000 live births.

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