DYSPEPSIA

15 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Dyspepsia is commonly called as indigestion or an upset stomach generally caused by a bacteria Helicobacter pyroli. There may be recurrent pain in the upper middle part of the abdomen because of stomach ulcer, acid reflux or gallbladder disease.

CAUSES –

  • Gulping too quickly without chewing the food properly
  • Smoking
  • Anxiety
  • Spicy or fatty food
  • Carbonated beverages
  • Alcohol
  • Some antibiotics, pain killers, oral contraceptives, thyroid medicines
  • Stomach ulcers
  • GERD
  • Chronic pancreatitis
  • Bowel syndrome
  • Gastroparesis
  • Pregnancy
  • Gall stones
  • Celiac disease

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Bloating in the upper part of the abdomen
  • Bleaching or gas formation
  • Nausea
  • Acidity and burning sensation in the stomach
  • Growling stomach
  • Black Stools
  • Sweating
  • Inability to swallow
  • Yellow coloring of eyes
  • Breathlessness
  • Chest pain

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Lab test
  • Stool Test
  • Breath Test
  • Endoscopy – A flexible small tube is inserted inside the body to produce images of stomach’s interior part using camera and light.
  • Imaging Test

TREATMENT –

  • Antacids
  • H-2-Receptor Antagonist – Reduces stomach acid levels and lasts longer than the antacids
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) – Effective in Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Prokinetics – More effective than PPIs but might have some side effects such as tiredness, depression, anxiety
  • Antibiotics
  • Antidepressants
  • Psychological therapy – Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Biofeedback, Hypnotherapy

RISK FACTORS –

  • Emotional Stress
  • Certain drugs such as aspirin, pain relievers
  • Abnormality in the digestive tract
  • Spicy and heavy food
  • Hereditary factors

PREVENTION –

  • Avoid fatty or spicy food
  • Eat food in small portions
  • Exercise regularly
  • Stress management
  • Herbal tea
  • Psychological treatment
  • Acupuncture
  • Quit smoking

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Chest pain is the mostly diagnosed condition in dyspepsia.
  • Helicobacter pyroli can affect any population of any age.
  • The prevalence of Dyspepsia is about 20-30% worldwide.

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