DYSTONIA

17 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Dystonia is a disorder that involves involuntary muscle contraction causing monotonous or twisting movements and tremor. It can affect any part of a muscle, a muscle group or the entire body. The spasms usually range from mild to severe.

CAUSES –

The exact cause of this disorder is still unknown but it depends upon whether the cause is primary or secondary.

Primary Cause –
  • Problem in one of the part of brain called Basal Ganglia which includes caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus in the cerebrum.
  • Neurotransmitters are produced in the basal ganglia causing improper muscle function.
Secondary Cause –
  • Brain tumors
  • Intake of carbon monoxide
  • Oxygen deficiency
  • Cerebral palsy affecting body movements and muscle coordination
  • Huntington’s disease
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Infections like Encephalitis, TB or HIV
  • Mental stroke, traumatic brain or spine injury
  • Wilson’s disease

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Dragging of foot and toes
  • Foot cramps
  • Cervical Dystonia involves involuntary pulling of the neck
  • Constant blinking
  • Oromandibular Dystonia – Difficulty in speech

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Physical disabilities affecting daily activities
  • Problem in vision
  • Problem in jaw movements, swallowing or speech
  • Muscle pain
  • Fatigue
  • Depression and anxiety

DIAGNOSIS –

TREATMENT –

  • Certain medications like muscle relaxants, Botulinum toxin etc
  • Physical therapy
  • Speech therapy
  • Surgery in severe conditions – Deep Brain Stimulation and Selective Denervation Surgery

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Estimation shows that Dystonia affects about 1% of the population worldwide.
  • Women are more prone to this disorder than men.

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