ENCEPHALITIS

15 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Encephalitis is a type of viral infection that affects physical condition of brain. It causes severe or mild flu, fever or headache. It also creates problem in movement or senses, seizures and complex thinking. It is a dangerous disorder as it is difficult to identify encephalitis. It badly affects individual’s life therefore timely diagnosis and treatment is a must requirement.


Types –
  • Primary Encephalitis
  • Secondary Encephalitis

CAUSES –

  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Enteroviruses
  • Mosquito borne viruses
  • Tick borne viruses
  • Rabies virus
  • Other herpes viruses
  • Infections in childhood

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Continuous pain in head
  • High body temperature
  • Pain in muscles and joints
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Illusions
  • Seizures
  • Loss of ability to move face and body parts
  • Unconsciousness
  • Oration and Speech problems

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Memory loss
  • Change in personality
  • Weakness in muscles
  • Paralysis
  • Epilepsy
  • Vision, hearing and speech problems

DIAGNOSIS –

  • CT Scan
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Spinal puncture
  • Laboratory test
  • Biopsy of brain

TREATMENT –

  • Proper Sleep
  • More liquid food / diet
  • Medications such as antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Various therapies such as physical, occupational, oration and psychotherapy

RISK FACTORS –

  • Age
  • Low immunity
  • Seasonal factors
  • Environmental factors

PREVENTIONS –

  • Minimum exposure to mosquitoes and viruses
  • Avoid unhygienic conditions and sanitation
  • Time to time vaccinations to children
  • Avoid mosquito-prone areas
  • Don’t allow stagnant water standing around house to stop the growth of mosquito and other infections

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Estimation shows that it occurs mostly in children however, it can affect people of any age group irrespective of the gender.
  • HIV infected population are more prone to get affected by Encephalitis. It affects around 15% of HIV population globally.

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