15 Jun 2019
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder where the brain does not function properly causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations and loss of awareness.Types –
- Generalized Seizures
- Tonic-Clonic Seizures (Grand Mal)
- Clonic Seizures
- Tonic Seizures
- Atonic Seizures
- Myoclonic Seizures
- Absence Seizures (Petit Mal)
- Focal or Partial Seizures
- Simple Focal Seizures
- Complex Focal Seizures
- Secondary Generalized Seizures
- Head trauma
- Brain conditions like tumors or strokes
- Brain development disorders like Autism, neurofibromatosis etc.
- Infectious diseases like Meningitis, AIDS etc.
- Prenatal injury like poor nutrition, oxygen deficiency etc.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –Signs and symptoms varies with the types of edema –
- Uncontrollable jerks in the arms and legs
- Staring spell (day dreaming)
- Temporary confusion
- Psychic signs like anxiety, fear etc.
- Loss of consciousness
- Headache and difficulty in speaking
- Todd’s paralysis, i.e., weakness after a seizure
- Falling, drowning or car accidents
- Pregnancy complications increase risk of birth defects
- Permanent brain damage
- Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)
- Electroencephalogram (EEG)
- Neuroimaging like CT scan and MRI
- Video EEG monitoring
- First Aid
- Proper healthy diet
- Avoidance therapy like avoiding triggers that lead to epilepsy
- Medications like anticonvulsants
- Alternative therapy like yoga, acupuncture etc.
RISK FACTORS –
- Medical conditions like stroke, vascular disease etc.
- Brain infections
- Seizures in childhood
The prevalence rate of epilepsy is from 3-12 per 1000 people as per the estimation.