EPINEPHRINE

17 Aug 2019

Generic Name : EPINEPHRINE (INJECTION/NASAL/OPTHALMIC)

ABSTRACT –

Epinephrine is a popular chemical drug that is used to treat severe low blood pressure, wheezing, severe itching, hives and other symptoms that are characteristics of severe anaphylaxis. Apart from being able to treat symptoms of anaphylaxis or septic shocks, this adrenergic bronchodilator is found in the nasal and ophthalmic forms to treat nose stuffiness and for causing mydriasis during an eye surgery, respectively. Epinephrine, generally branded as Adrenalin, is categorized as a catecholamine agent as well as a vasopressor agent.

DOSAGE –

  • Epinephrine is to be taken as directed by the doctors. Consume this drug only as prescribed to avoid overdose or other harmful effects.
  • The injection form of the drug is generally given through a vein, but an auto-injector device is also readily available for single use and dispose. The device comes with instructions that are to be followed in case of allergies.
  • Ophthalmic Epinephrine is administered by the doctor while nasal Epinephrine is to be taken after blowing the nose as needed.
  • General Adult Dosage available:
  • Injection – 1mg/mL, 0.5%, 0.3mg

    Ophthalmic – Borate 1%, Borate 0.5%

    Topical (Nasal) – 1mg/mL, 10mg/mL

SIDE EFFECTS –

  • Breathing difficulties
  • Fastened heartbeats
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Anxiety

RARE SIDE EFFECTS –

  • Hypersensitivity reactions

DRUG INTERACTIONS –

  • Amoxapine
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Clomipramine
  • Cocaine
  • Desflurane
  • Doxepin
  • Enflurane
  • Ergonovine
  • Imipramine
  • Labetalol
  • Linezolid
  • Nadolol
  • Pindolol
  • Propranolol
  • Sotalol

Epinephrine has major interactions with 36 different drugs.

MODERATE DRUG INTERACTIONS –

  • Acebutolol
  • Albuterol
  • Acarbose
  • Alogliptin
  • Atenolol
  • Asenapine
  • Bitolterol
  • Formoterol
  • Guanadrel
  • Haloperidol
  • Iloperidone
  • Iloprost
  • Insulin
  • Loxapine
  • Mazindol
  • Mesoridazine

Epinephrine has moderate interactions with 151 different drugs.

PRECAUTIONS –

  • Provide the doctor with a detailed and accurate medical history prior to drug prescription. Notify especially in case of illnesses or conditions such as heart conditions, asthmatic conditions, Parkinson’s, depression, thyroid disorders or diabetic conditions.
  • Do not consume this drug in case it has ever worsened an allergy previously.
  • Avoid using the injection if the solution has changed colors or there are particles within it.
  • Do not use the nasal form of this drug through the mouth; avoid using this drug if it changes color.
  • Inform the doctor of all the drugs being consumed so as to avoid severe drug interactions.

WARNINGS –

  • Keep out of reach of children.
  • Do not inject this drug into a vein (without supervision), or into the muscles of the buttocks.
  • Nasal form of this drug may cause severity of side effects to increase in patients above the age of 65.
  • In case of overdose, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center immediately. Symptoms of overdose generally involves numbness, severe headache, blurry vision, pounding within the ears or rapid palpitations.

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