Gallstones

17 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Gallstones are the small stones, hardened deposits of digestive fluid which gets produced in the gallbladder, a small organ located beneath the liver. It can be one or many in number. People suffering from gallstones usually go for gallbladder removal.

Types –
  1. Cholesterol Stones- Appears yellow in color, accounts for almost 80% of the gallstones. These are composed of undissolved cholesterol
  2. Pigment Gallstones – These type of gallstones are dark brown or black pigmented stones which is formed from bilirubin.

CAUSES –

  • Heredity
  • High cholesterol
  • Excessive amount of bilirubin in the bile

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Pain in the right upper part of the abdomen
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Indigestion
  • Bleaching
  • Bloating
  • Jaundice
  • Contraceptive pills

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Cholecystitis – Inflammation of the gallbladder
  • Cholangitis – Hepatic and intrahepatic ducts gets infected
  • Gangrene – Inflammation of the cholecytitis prevents the supply of blood to the gallbladder
  • Jaundice
  • Pancreatitis
  • Sepsis
  • Fistula- Gallstones erodes the soft wall of the gallbladder and causes fistula
  • Cancer

DIAGNOSIS –

TREATMENT –

  • Cholecystectomy – Surgery to remove gallbladder
  • Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL) – Shock waves are given to break gallstones into tiny pieces
  • Oral Dilution Therapy

RISK FACTORS –

  • Aging
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Consuming high fat food
  • Diabetes
  • Gradually losing weight
  • Medication containing estrogen
  • Family history

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Annually, it affects 10% to 15% of the adult population worldwide and females are more prone to get affected from this condition.

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