GASTROENTERITIS

20 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Gastroenteritis is a medical condition in which inflammation of stomach and small intestine occurs. It is also called as infectious diarrhea which affects gastrointestinal tract, caused due to viral, bacterial or parasitic infections. It is also known by other names such as stomach bug, stomach flu, intestinal flu, stomach virus, food poisoning and traveler’s diarrhea.

CAUSES –

  • Viral infection: Rotavirus and Norovirus cause viral gastroenteritis
  • Bacterial and parasitic infections
  • Contaminated food and water
  • Certain food like gluten and lactose

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weakness and tiredness
  • Headache
  • Abdominal cramps and pain
  • Fever and chills
  • Dehydration

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Sampling of stools
  • Blood test

TREATMENT –

  • Antibiotic medications
  • Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS)

RISK FACTORS –

  • Low immunity
  • Age: Young and elderly
  • Crowded area
  • Unhygienic conditions
  • Contaminated food and water

PREVENTIONS –

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Estimation shows that nearly 5 billion people suffers from Gastroenteritis annually which results in 1.4 million deaths at global level.
  • Young children and aged people are majorly affected.

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