GRAVES DISEASE

18 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Graves Disease is a common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is an autoimmune condition that results in overproduction of thyroid hormones. Body’s immune system starts attacking healthy cells instead of foreign invaders. It was originally known as ‘Exophthalmic Goiter’ which was later changed and named after Sir Robert Grave; a doctor who described this condition. Approximately, 30% of these patients also have a chance of getting affected from Grave’s Ophthalmopathy which affects muscles and tissues around the eyes.

CAUSES –

  • Malfunction of immune system
  • TRAb (Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody) – Antibody TRAb acts as regulatory pituitary hormone resulting in overproduction of thyroid hormones.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Excessive sweating
  • Tremors in hand or fingers
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Weight loss
  • Change in menstrual cycle
  • Anxiety and irritability
  • Goiter
  • Grave’s ophthalmopathy
  • Palpitation

COMPLICATIONS –

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Blood test
  • X-ray, MRI, CT Scan
  • Ultrasound
  • Radioactive iodine intake/li>

TREATMENT –

  • Radioactive iodine therapy
  • Anti-thyroid medications
  • Beta blockers
  • Surgery

RISK FACTORS –

  • Age: It usually develops in people of age less than 40
  • Family history
  • Genetic factors
  • Pregnancy or recent child birth
  • Smoking
  • Other autoimmune disorders
  • Stress

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

Estimation shows that 2-3% of world’s population suffers from Graves Disease annually.

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