GYNECOMASTIA

13 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Gynecomastia is a swelling or enlargement of male breast tissue, generally caused by high levels of estrogen and testosterone. In puberty stage, Gynecomastia might develop as an outcome to change in normal hormonal levels, although the breast won’t expand in a man as the way it happens in woman.

CAUSES –

Gynecomastia can occur at any of these stages:

  • During infancy
  • At puberty
  • Age of 30 and above

Causes for the same could be –

  • Obesity
  • Malnutrition and starvation
  • Tumors appeared in the testicles or adrenal glands
  • Liver failure and cirrhosis
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypoandrogenism
  • Hypogonadism
  • Kidney failure

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Inflamed breast
  • Lump and fatty tissues under the nipple
  • Breast painfulness

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Blood test
  • Mammograms
  • CT scans
  • MRI scans
  • Testicular ultrasounds
  • Tissue biopsy

PREVENTION –

  • Avoid consuming illegal drugs
  • Quit alcohol and smoking
  • Review the medications

TREATMENT –

  • Certain medications
  • Surgery including Liposuction, Mastectomy

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Gynecomastia affects males of different age groups:
    1. 60-90% of newborns suffer from this because of high estrogen levels which goes on its own within few weeks.
    2. Adolescents develop this around age 13-14 and it goes away within 6 months to 2 years.
    3. The incidence increases again in male during the age of 65 and above. 1 out of 4 men in the age group of 50-80 gets affected from Gynecomastia.

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