HEMORRHOIDS

17 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Hemorrhoids, also known as piles are swollen veins that affects lower part of anus and lower rectum. It can be treated and prevented but becomes unpleasant and painful when walls of veins are stretched. It turns worse with time hence it is necessary to treat Hemorrhoids as soon as it is noticed.

Types –
  • Internal hemorrhoids
  • External hemorrhoids
  • Thrombosed hemorrhoids

CAUSES –

  • Straining during bowel movements
  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Anal intercourse
  • Sitting for longer periods on toilet
  • Low fiber diet
  • Constipation

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Bleeding during bowel movements
  • Irritation and itching
  • Pain and discomfort
  • Lump and swelling around anus

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Anemia
  • Strangulated Hemorrhoid

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Digital examination, insertion of gloved lubricated finger into rectum.
  • Visual inspection, examination of lower portion of colon and rectum with anoscope, proctoscope or sigmoidoscope.

TREATMENT –

  • Home treatments such as ice packs, cold compressor, usage of dry toilet paper
  • Medications like OTC creams, ointments, analgesics, pads and suppositories
  • Surgery includes complete removal of the hemorrhoids, known as a hemorrhoidectomy.

RISK FACTORS –

  • Weakening and stretching in anus and rectum
  • Pregnancy

PREVENTION –

  • Regular exercise
  • Drink plenty of liquid fluid
  • Intake of high fiber diet
  • Avoid long periods of sitting

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • The overall prevalence of Piles in the general population is estimated to be 4.4% worldwide.
  • It usually becomes common among people older than 45 years irrespective of gender.
  • Overall, around 25% females and 15% males get affected with Piles every year.

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