HERNIATED DISC

17 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Disc are the rubbery cushions between vertebrae of spine. Spinal disk contains jelly material inside with hard exterior. Herniated Disc occurs when softer jelly protrudes through the tougher exterior. It is also called as slipped disk or ruptured disk. It irritates nearby nerves which results in pain, numbness or weakness. However, some people don’t experience pain and can get cured within few months.

CAUSES –

  • Disk degeneration
  • Aging
  • Reduction in amount of disk water results into inflexibility
  • Protrusion of soft interior from the wall of disk

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Numbness and tingling sensation in spine
  • Weakness in muscles due to affected nerves
  • Back pain spreading to arms, legs, neck

COMPLICATIONS-

  • Sciatica
  • Bladder or bowel dysfunction
  • Saddle anesthesia
  • Cauda equina or horse’s tail wherein the spinal cord gets separated into group of individual nerves.

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • X-ray
  • CT Scan
  • MRI
  • Myelogram – Taking an x-ray image of dye-injected spinal fluid

TREATMENT –

  • Medications:
    1. OTC Pain Relievers
    2. Narcotics
    3. Anticonvulsants
    4. Muscle relaxants
  • Cortisone injectionss
  • Physiotherapy
  • Surgery – Artificial Disk Replacement

RISK FACTORS –

  • Hereditary and Genetics
  • Obesity
  • Driving frequently
  • Straining spine through heavy lifting, improper pulling or twisting
  • Inactive lifestyle with no exercise
  • Smoking

PREVENTIONS –

  • Exercise regularly
  • Lose weight.
  • Maintain good body posture
  • Maintain weight according to BMI

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

Estimation shows that 5 to 20 individuals per 1000 adults gets affected from Herniated Disc annually.

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