HICCUPS

17 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Hiccups are unintentional contractions of the diaphragm muscle; happens when the intake of air gets temporarily blocked by sudden closure of vocal cords. It doesn’t happen for particular reason. It is not a major issue or trouble, but prolonged hiccups can lead to a serious medical problem.

CAUSES –

  • Eating too fast
  • Consumption of carbonated beverages and alcohol
  • Stress and strong emotions
  • Inhaling air along with chewing gum or slurping any other food item
  • Psychological reactions like excitement, anxiety etc
  • Conditions such as pleurisy of the diaphragm, pneumonia, or asthma
  • Long term hiccups can last due to central nervous system disorders like encephalitis or meningitisy

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Irritation
  • Contraction sensation in the chest, abdomen or throat
  • If it stays for long, exhaustion and weight loss due to lack of sleep

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Laboratory test to check the signs of diabetes, inction, and kidney disease
  • Imaging test to identify anatomical abnormalities that are affecting the vagus nerve, phrenic nerve or diaphragm
  • Endoscopic test

PREVENTION –

  • Take extra care during rapid changes in temperature
  • Avoid drinking alcohol or sodas
  • Don’t eat fast

TREATMENT –

  • Drink ice-cold water slowly
  • Acupuncture and hypnosis
  • Consume granulated sugar
  • Breath-in and breath-out gradually
  • Take medicines and drugs in case hiccups stays for long
  • Anesthesia is given to block the phrenic nerve to stop hiccups

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • It is a general condition that affects all ages, including the fetus.
  • Estimation shows that males are more prone to this condition than females.

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