KIDNEY FAILURE

21 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Kidney is an organ responsible for filtering the waste, additional fluid from body and purifies it which then gets excreted through urine. Kidney Failure is a condition where the kidneys stop performing this function. It is important to treat the kidney diseases with utmost care because if the disease is left untreated, it can worsen the situation and become life threatening. Kidney failure is majorly because of acute or chronic kidney diseases.

Acute Kidney Diseases: It is when the kidney stops functioning all of a sudden. Chronic Kidney Diseases: Chronic kidney diseases occur when the kidney gradually stops functioning.

CAUSES –

Acute Kidney Diseases-
  • When there is slow blood flow to the kidneys
  • Damage in the kidneys because of alcohol and cocaine consumption
  • Blood clots in kidney’s veins and arteries
  • Medications such as drugs used for chemotherapy, antibiotics
  • Cholesterol deposits blocking the blood flow
  • Blocked urine drainage tubes (ureters)
  • Other medical conditions like cancer, high BP, diabetes etc
Chronic Kidney Diseases-
  • Type 1 or type 2 diabetes
  • High BP
  • Interstitial Nephritis – Kidney inflammation
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux – Condition which makes urine to reverse back to the kidneys
  • Glomerulonephritis – Swelling in the filtering units of kidneys
  • Infections and other kidney disorders

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Problems in sleeping
  • Swelling in legs, ankle and feet
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Breathlessness
  • Chest pain
Acute Kidney Diseases-
  • Less urine production
  • Abnormal heartbeat
Chronic Kidney Diseases-
  • High BP
  • Retarded mental health
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle cramps

COMPLICATIONS

Acute Kidney Diseases-
  • Permanent damage in kidney
  • Severe chest pain
  • Weakness in muscles
  • Fluid accumulation in lungs causes shortness of breath
Chronic Kidney Diseases-
  • Swelling in arms and legs with high BP
  • Reduced fertility and erectile dysfunction
  • Damage in nervous system
  • Decreased immunity
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Hyperkalemia i.e. rise in potassium levels in blood
  • Pregnancy issues

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Urine test
  • Blood test
  • Kidney biopsy
  • Imaging tests like ultrasound and CT

TREATMENT –

Acute Kidney Diseases –
  • Dialysis
  • Treatments to balance body fluids
  • Medications to restore levels of blood calcium and control blood potassium
Chronic Kidney Diseases-
  • Medications for –
    1. High blood pressure
    2. Lowering cholesterol levels
    3. Treating anemia
    4. Protecting bones
  • Diuretics to relieve swelling
  • Kidney transplant
  • Dialysis

RISK FACTORS –

  • This condition can develop at any age and can affect people of any race however women are more prone to CKD.Ageing
  • High blood pressure
  • Kidney diseases, Liver diseases, Heart failure, Diabetes and Cancer
  • Hereditary factors
  • Excessive smoking and alcohol abuse
  • Obesity

PREVENTIONS –

  • Control on OTC medication consumption
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Limit alcohol and drug intake
  • Maintain weight
  • Quit smoking

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Around 10% of population gets affected by kidney diseases globally with million deaths every year.
  • This condition can develop at any age and can affect people of any race however women are more prone to CKD.

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