KIDNEY STONES

20 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Kidney stones also known as Renal Calculi are the accumulation of solid masses of dissolved minerals and crystals which originates in the inner lining of kidneys. This can also develop in any part of the urinary tract. The shape of the kidney stone is sharp, crystalline structure like a golf ball. It remains unobserved when small and causes severe pain while passing through the urinary tract. It is one of the most agonizing medical conditions.

Types:
  • Calcium
  • Uric acid
  • Struvite
  • Cystine

CAUSES –

  • Lack of water intake
  • Excess formation of acidic substances while urination
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Medullary sponge kidney
  • Dent’s disease

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Serious pain below the ribs
  • Intense pain in the lower abdomen and groin
  • Lack of urine and pain while urination
  • Dark colored and stinky smell of urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Presence of the infection can cause fever

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Blood test
  • Urine test
  • Imaging tests like X-Ray, CT Scan
  • Stool examination in the lab to analyze the cause of kidney stones

TREATMENT –

  • Increase the fluid consumption
  • Pain relievers
  • Medications like alpha blockers, muscle relaxants etc
  • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
  • Ureteroscope to remove smaller stones
  • Parathyroid gland surgery
  • In case of large kidney stones, surgery is recommended

PREVENTION –

  • Drink excess water
  • Consumption of oxalate and calcium-rich food
  • Lower the quantity of salt-protein intake

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • The estimation shows that it is gradually increasing with each passing year with a prevalence of 10-15% globally.
  • Males are more vulnerable to get affected by this condition than females.

 

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