MALARIA

21 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Malaria is a parasite-mosquito borne blood disease caused by Female Anopheles wherein the parasite is transferred in the human body by the bites of these infected mosquitoes. It’s a very common and curable disease which can be controlled by simple preventive measures. Each year several people gets infected and dies because of the lack of effective and on time diagnosis and treatment. Currently there is no vaccine for this disease but the scientists around the world are working on it to protect all from this condition.

CAUSES –

  • Anopheles mosquito
  • Blood transfusion
  • Infected mother can transfer the parasite to unborn baby
  • Usage of infected and used needles

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Chills and shivering in the body
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle pain
  • Cold
  • Abdominal pain
  • Excessive sweating

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Organ Failure
  • Anemia – Damage in red blood cells
  • Hypoglycemia -Low blood sugar level
  • Cerebral Malaria
  • Difficulty in breathing

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Blood test
  • Urine test

TREATMENT –

  • Prescribed medications and antimalarial drugs like Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs).

RISK FACTORS –

  • To live / visit mosquito prone area
  • People at risk:
  1. Children (young and infants)
  2. Expecting females and unborn babies
  3. Aged
  4. Frequent travelers

PREVENTION –

  • Avoid visiting malaria prone region during late evening, midnight and early morning as the mosquito tends to bite actively during these time periods
  • In mosquito prone area / region:
  1. Use mosquito net while sleeping
  2. Keep the body covered with blanket
  3. Apply OTC creams and ointments on skin to keep the mosquitos away
  4. Appropriate vaccination

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • It had been estimated that there are total 435,000 deaths had happened due to malaria globally in which children were affected the most.

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