MEASLES

24 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Measles also known as Rubeola is a viral infection which generally affects the children. The virus stays in the mucus of the nose and throat of an infected individual and spreads through air. This can be very infectious if an individual is not vaccinated and leads to severe and critical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) determines Measles as the most deadly condition of all childhood rashes or fever illnesses.

CAUSES –

  • Rubeola Virus which is also known as Measles Virus
  • Virus spreads through an infected person like coughing or sneezing

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Fever, cough and sneezing
  • Coryza or runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Koplik’s spots: White spots appear inside the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek
  • Red rashes on skin
  • Body-ache
  • Photophobia

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Diarrhea
  • Ear infections
  • Pneumonia and swelling in brain
  • Bronchitis or laryngitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Issues in pregnancy

DIAGNOSIS –

  • There is no specific way of diagnosing Measles, it is done on the basis of symptoms.
  • Physical examination
  • Blood test enables to confirm the presence of measles virus

TREATMENT –

  • Vaccination
  • Antibiotic-injections
  • Medications such as fever reducers, antibiotics etc

PREVENTION –

  • Vaccination – Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR) vaccine
  • Avoid smoking in presence of children
  • Clean the crustiness around the eyes
  • Plenty of fluid intake to avoid dehydration
  • Maintain good hygiene habits
  • Try to avoid contact with an infected individual

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • This condition generally affects children below the age of 5 years.
  • According to World Health Organization, estimation shows that 2.6 million children die every year due to measles if not vaccinated.

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