MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

25 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major disease that affects the central nervous system of the body i.e. brain and spinal cord. In MS, the immune system of the body attacks the healthy cells just like it attacks virus and bacteria. It varies from person to person which cannot be predicted easily such that it can cause mild symptoms or can directly show the severe symptoms in the body. Although it occurs in the nervous system, the effect of this disease is seen all over the body by wide range of symptoms.

CAUSES –

  • Autoimmune disorder
  • Ageing
  • Unprotected sex
  • Genetics
  • Smoking
  • Deficiency of vitamin D and B12

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • A pin and needle-type sensations
  • Lhermitte’s sign – sensation of electric shock while moving neck
  • Frequent urination
  • Fatigue
  • Sexual problems
  • Blurred vision
  • Pain in neck
  • Lack of coordination
  • Problem in all the sensory organs
  • Headache

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Deteriorating muscle health
  • Severe mental changes
  • Depression
  • Paralysis
  • Loss of interest in sex
  • Epilepsy – A neurological disorder in which the brain activity become abnormal

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Blood Test
  • Imaging Tests – MRI, CT Scan, Ultrasound
  • Fluid Testing

TREATMENT –

  • Corticosteroids and Betainterferons
  • Plasma exchange – Also known as Plasmapheresis
  • Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy
  • Medication for fatigue
  • Relaxants for muscle spasms and cramps
  • Stem cell therapy

RISK FACTORS –

  • Ageing
  • Vitamin-B12 and Vitamin-D deficiency
  • Genetics
  • Pre-existing autoimmune diseases like thyroid, diabetes and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
  • Viral infections

PREVENTION –

  • Exercise regularly including yoga and meditation
  • Balanced and healthy diet
  • Proper rest

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • The study has found that there are currently 2.2 million prevalent cases of multiple sclerosis which got increased by 10.4% as compared to 1990.
  • It can affect people of any age however females are more prone to this condition than males.

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