ORAL CANCER

27 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Oral cancer or oral cavity cancer can develop and grow in any part of the mouth on the surface of the tongue, lips, under cheeks lining, tonsils, pharynx, hard and soft palate, salivary glands. It is like head and neck cancer and often treated in a similar way.

CAUSES –

  • The exact cause of mutation is still unknown however mutations in DNA and squamous cell carcinoma can be one of the reason.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Red and white color patches on the lining of the mouth and tongue
  • Mouth ulcers or sores
  • Bleeding in the mouth
  • Swelling and lumps around the mouth
  • Inflammation or thickening of the skin
  • Ache or pain while swallowing
  • Jaw pain or numbness
  • Irritation in throat
  • Gruffly voice
  • Loosened teeth
  • Pain in the neck or ear
  • Remarkable weight loss

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Dysphagia
  • Malnutrition
  • Lung Infections
  • Aspiration Pneumonia
  • Emotional Trauma like depression, irritability, frustration, and anxiety

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical Examination
  • Biopsy
  • Endoscopy
  • Imaging test such as X-rays, CT or MRI Scans
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scans

TREATMENT –

  • Surgery for removing tumor
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Molecularly Targeted Drug Therapy uses antibiotics to limit the growth of cancer cells

PREVENTION –

  • Quit tobacco and smoking
  • Limit on alcohol consumption
  • Stay away from sunlight
  • Regular checkups
  • Avoid junk foods or saturated fats

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Estimation shows that males are more prone to oral cancer than females in the ratio of 2:1.
  • It generally appears in middle aged and older individuals in between the age group of 40-80 years.

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