OSTEOMYELITIS

03 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Osteomyelitis is an infection and inflammation in a bone or of bone marrow. Infection may occur in a bone itself by exposure to germs due to an injury which gets carried through blood stream or nearby tissues. People with chronic illness such as diabetes and kidney failure are more prone to get affected with this condition. It commonly affects long bones of legs, upper arms, spine and the pelvis. In Chronic Osteomyelitis, a bone may die eventually.

CAUSES –

  • Germs or infection from other body parts can reach to the weak section of bone through bloodstream.
  • Injury or surgery: Bacteria can enter through wounds or during bone surgeries
  • Weakened immune system
  • Pre-existing conditions or other chronic illnesses

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Swelling, redness and tenderness in the affected area
  • Severe pain
  • Fever and chills
  • Fatigue
  • Discharge from the wound or affected area

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Osteonecrosis (Bone death)
  • Septic Arthritis
  • Degraded growth and quality of bones
  • Skin cancer

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical Examination
  • Blood test: High level of WBC shows this condition
  • X-Ray, MRI, CT Scan
  • Biopsy

TREATMENT –

  • Antibiotics or anti-fungal oral medications
  • Intravenous Antibiotics
  • Surgery: Draining of pus or fluid, removal of diseased and infected bone, restoring blood flow to the bone, removal of foreign objects, amputation of limb etc.

RISK FACTORS –

  • Injury or bone surgery
  • Circulatory system disorders
  • Weak immune system due to chemotherapy or radiation or any other disorders

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Prevalence has shown that around 13 per 100,000 children and 90 per 100,000 adults gets affected with Osteomyelitis annually on a global level.
  • It is more common in males as compared to females and mostly seen in developing countries.

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