01 Jul 2019


Parkinson disease is a disorder of nervous system that affects the body movements, caused by degeneration of nerve cells in substantia nigra, a part of the brain which regulates movement. This condition worsens gradually after a certain period of time. It starts with a noticeable tremor in one hand and then becomes severe when it starts causing stiffness, inflexibility or slowing of movements.


  • Hereditary aspects
  • Environmental factors
  • Lewy body dementia
  • Low dopamine levels
  • Low norepinephrine levels
  • Autoimmune factors resulting into autoimmune disorders


  • Tremor or shivering
  • Bradykinesia: Slow movements
  • Stiff muscles
  • Stooped posture and problem in balancing
  • Lack of habitual movements which includes blinking, smiling or swinging
  • Difficulty in speech
  • Mood swings
  • Constipation
  • Improper sleep
  • Problem while urination



  • Medications such as Anticholinergics
  • Surgery
  • Pallidotomy is recommended to aggressive patients, it is performed by inserting a wire probe into globus pallidus.
  • Thalamotomy: Radio frequency energy currents are used to destroy a specific small part of the thalamus.
  • Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS): An alternative to Pallidotomy and Thalamotomy.


  • Estimation shows that it affects 1% of the population with the age of 60 years and above.
  • Males are more prone to get Parkinson than females, but the risk appears to increase in females with their age.

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