PHOBIAS

29 Jun 2019

ABSTRACT –

Phobias is an anxiety disorder that results in extreme aversion and unreasonable fear of situations or objects. Phobias are mental disorders that leads to stressful panic attacks and prevents a person to function normally.

Types-
  • Specific Phobia
  • Social Phobia
  • Agoraphobia

There are various categories of phobias but the most commonly observed are:

  • Claustrophobia: Fear of being in limited, confined spaces
  • Aerophobia: Fear of flying
  • Zoophobia: Fear of animals
  • Aquaphobia: Fear of water
  • Acrophobia: Fear of heights
  • Blood, Injury and Injection (BII) Phobia: Fear of injuries involving blood

CAUSES –

  • Alteration in brain functioning
  • Genetics and environmental factors
  • Negative experiences hampering the brain

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Chest pain
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Sweating
  • Abnormal breathing
  • Fat heartbeats
  • Giddiness
  • Hot or cold sensations in body
  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Wheezing
  • Headache

COMPLICATIONS –

DIAGNOSIS –

There is no specific diagnostic test to detect a phobia, but it can be done by interviewing the person based on guidelines mentioned in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)

TREATMENT –

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
  • Exposure Therapy
  • Medications such as Beta blockers, Antidepressants and Sedatives

RISK FACTORS –

  • Traumatic life experiences
  • Ageing
  • Irritated personality
  • Hereditary factors

PREVENTIONS –

  • Dealing with own fears
  • Proper sleep and meditation
  • Yoga and relaxation exercises

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • The prevalence of phobias is 8% of the total population globally.
  • The condition is most common in women and men older than 25 years.

 

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