PNEUMONIA

01 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

Pneumonia is the inflammation in one or both the lungs. This infection can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi however bacterial pneumonia is the most commonly found condition. The alveolus gets filled with fluid or pus and makes an individual difficult to breathe. It can be a serious and life-threatening disease if not treated promptly.

CAUSES –

  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) can be caused by:
  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria
  2. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a bacteria like organism
  3. Fungi
  4. Viral pneumonia: Cold and flu viruses
  • Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP)
  • Aspiration pneumonia through inhalation of bacteria
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP)

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

  • Chest pain
  • Alteration in mental awareness
  • Cough with phlegm and mucus
  • Fatigue
  • Low body temperature
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Breathing problems

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical Examination
  • Blood Test
  • X-ray and CT Scan
  • Pulse oximetry to measure the oxygen level of blood
  • Sputum test
  • Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
  • Bronchoscopy

TREATMENT –

  • Certain medications such as antibiotics, pain relievers, antiviral etc
  • Proper and complete rest
  • Increase the amount of fluid intake

PREVENTION –

  • Vaccination
  • Maintain good hygiene
  • Stay in healthy environment
  • Cover the mouth while coughing or sneezing
  • Quit smoking
  • Healthy diet
  • Exercise regularly
  • Stay away from infected individual to be safe from sputum or cough particles
  • Boost immunity

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • It is a serious condition results into highest mortality and morbidity rates worldwide irrespective of the age.
  • Individuals with weakened immune systems are mostly affected with Pneumonia.

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