POLIO

01 Jul 2019

ABSTRACT –

It is a common condition on the scalp that appears due to flaking of the skin. It is usually treatable. The cause of dandruff is not only limited to hygiene factors but it is associated with other causes as well. New born or young infants usually have dandruff which is known as cradle cap and it appears as greasy, yellow patches on the scalp.

CAUSES –

  • Poliovirus
  • Contaminated food or water
  • Feces of an infected person

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS –

 Non-paralytic Polio:

    • Fever
    • Sore throat
    • Headache
    • Pain or stiffness in body parts such as Neck, Back, Arms or legs
    • Vomiting
    • Breathlessness

 Paralytic Polio:

  • Severe spasm and muscle pain
  • Loss of reflexes
  • Sudden paralysis
  • Loose and floppy limbs
  • Severe muscle ache or weakness

COMPLICATIONS –

  • Temporary or permanent paralysis
  • Bone deformities
  • Death

DIAGNOSIS –

  • Physical examination
  • Sample test of throat secretion, stool or cerebrospinal fluid

TREATMENT –

  • Medications such as Pain killers, Antispasmodic Drugs, Antibiotics
  • Portable ventilator to assist breathing
  • Physiotherapy

RISK FACTORS –

  • Weakened immune system
  • Working with poliovirus in labs
  • Travelling and staying in polio-prone areas
  • Contaminated food and water
  • Polio infected surroundings

PREVENTIONS –

  • Polio Vaccine at birth
  • Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) or Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) booster dose in adults
  • Maintain hygiene and stay in a clean place
  • Avoid close contact with infected person

EPIDEMIOLOGY –

  • Young children below 5 years and pregnant females are majorly prone to suffer from it.
  • 1 in 200 infected individuals gets affected from paralysis for lifetime out of which 5 -10% dies because of breathing disorders and infections

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